Although much recognised in humans, stress is rarely considered as a contributory factor in behavioural changes in dogs. In humans, doctors recognise the fact that stress is a major cause of many physical ans psychological illnesses, yet we are less ready to consider how our dogs cope with the stresses and strains that our modern environment places upon them. We might recognise as fearfulness the fact that some dogs, on being taken into a do club for the first time, will salivate, hold their ears back, tuck their tails between their legs, leave sweaty paw prints on the floor and, in some cased, urinate. Unfortunately, all too often the advice given to the owner is that they will 'get used to it'. What we don't recognise is that pro-longed exposure to this fearful environment will drain the dog' stress reserve level and its ability to cope - much as it does in people.